Technology

 

 

Auditing the Smart Cityhttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/Auditing-the-Smart-City.aspxAuditing the Smart City<p>​As cities aggressively adopt “smart” technology — especially in the very public-facing transportation and safety arenas — municipal auditors will increasingly find themselves facing a new version of a familiar risk: cybersecurity. The underpinning of Internet-of-Things (IoT) connectedness that makes smart tech so smart is also its Achilles’ heel, offering hackers access, on a vast scale, to all kinds of complicated technologies — and the people they affect. And countering that risk may require new internal audit skills and tools. </p><p>When the technology works, smart sensors create massive amounts of data that trigger mechanical responses: roadways charge electric vehicles as they pass above; connected cars find the best parking spots. But cybercrime experts take smart tech risks — and their implications for municipalities — quite seriously, painting a dark future portrait in the event things go awry. What happens, for example, if cybercriminals made every traffic light in a city green at the same time or scrambled the entire grid’s color cycles during rush hour? What if they completely shut down the city’s smart power grid? What if an attacker targeted water and sewage systems, tampering with automated meters that detect and respond to flood conditions? </p><p>Auditors take those risks seriously, too. “The benefits that smart and emerging technologies can deliver are accompanied by multiple new risks,” says Tonia Lediju, chief audit executive (CAE) for the City and County of San Francisco. “We need to ensure that cities have the right security governance, processes, and controls in place.”</p><h2>Smart City by the Bay</h2><p>In San Francisco, there’s a lot of smart tech to audit. Lediju says it’s one of the leading smart cities globally, and it’s working on even more smart mobility solutions — often in partnership with private companies or with the U.S. federal government. Initiatives include smart traffic signals, an electronic toll system with congestion pricing, and autonomous electric shuttles to Treasure Island in the San Francisco Bay. The city also uses smart parking meters that change prices according to the time and day of the week.</p><p>Lediju says her auditors tackle the new risks of smart tech head-on. The City Services Auditor Division assists the various city departments affected by new transportation technology, for example, in understanding the risks, monitoring the application controls designed to rein them in, and crafting preventive responses. Lediju says her team’s annual work plan includes auditing new technologies when deemed necessary, based on a risk assessment. </p><p>The division works closely day to day with the City and County of San Francisco’s Department of Technology, its Committee on Information Technology, and the departments adopting new technologies to ensure all risks are managed adequately, before adoption, Lediju says. She follows three key steps: understand the pipeline of emerging technologies being considered, identify risk trends, and help departments actively manage risks as they navigate relevant regulations. </p><p>In the cybersecurity space, the City Services Auditor Division “identifies systems’ vulnerabilities and risks through penetration and assessment tests, and recommends remediation,” Lediju explains. Testing encompasses several areas, including cybersecurity framework adoption, security awareness training, IT governance, systems and network security, and business continuity.</p><p>“We also contribute insight gleaned from our extensive scope of work to help departments evolve and improve their strategies and protocols to better prepare for cyberattacks,” Lediju adds. Her team’s work is based on the Cybersecurity Framework Core Functions outlined by the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): identify, protect, detect, respond, and recover. The City Services Auditor Division, she notes, also makes recommendations based on the CIS Controls and CIS Benchmarks guidance developed by the Center for Internet Security (CIS). “The CIS recommendations highlight for clients the numerous opportunities for control and process improvements or other enhancements that could ultimately increase their effectiveness in managing data security and fulfilling the organizations’ missions and goals in serving the city,” Lediju says. </p><h2>Sweden’s Smart Tech</h2><p>At Sweden’s Borlänge-based Trafikverket — the Swedish Transport Administration — the audit unit also gets involved early on, says Peter Funck, CAE. “The Agency,” as he calls it, is the national government authority responsible for public roads and railways; Funck’s office focuses on the planning and development phases, which is where he says his unit delivers the greatest added value. Audit and The Agency, he adds, have learned to manage large software and infrastructure development projects in similar ways, meaning audit is involved “several times before coding starts, as well as before the first spade is put in the ground,” Funck says. That’s been the case with two of Sweden’s key smart tech endeavors:</p><p></p><ul><li>The European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is a major industrial project underway in the European Union, Funck notes, and Sweden is one of the early adopters in developing and implementing it. ERTMS is a safety system that “enforces compliance by the train with speed restrictions and signaling status,” he says. </li><li>Sweden is also developing a national system for controlling and scheduling all trains that will integrate train operator scheduling. “It’s one of the biggest software-based projects ever in the country,” Funck says. “The project brings a lot of opportunities, but, of course, size and complexity imply challenges: Will it work? Is it safe?”</li></ul><p><br></p><p>Funck points out that his unit audited both the ERTMS and national integration projects several times, before they were even deployed on a test basis. “Those audits had different focuses,” he says, “but the common denominator has been whether internal controls provide prerequisites to make it work and make it safe.”</p><p>The projects aren’t yet far enough along for after-the-fact performance audits. But Funck notes that, in all of his office’s smart tech projects, health and safety, including terror attacks, are the largest risk concerns. “Information security often brings those risks down to some kind of acceptable level,” he says. Indeed, Funck emphasizes that available information security technology in general is up to the smart tech challenge; the bigger problem lies in people and their roles in keeping smart cities humming.</p><p>Funck adds: “There is always a need for some kind of security and safety risk acceptance in developing business processes to balance with productivity requirements.” At the end of the day, he points out, “railroads and roads are safer if we remove all trains and cars.” </p><h2>Data and Privacy Safeguards</h2><p>Jim Thompson, city auditor in the Albuquerque Office of Internal Audit (OIA), takes smart tech in stride, too, though he’s also well aware of the risks it poses — including those related to cybersecurity. “OIA performs an annual risk assessment of the city, which includes consideration of the city’s information technology risk,” he says. “As the city increases its use and reliance on information technologies, including smart technologies, the risk of cybersecurity and data breach — as well as the liability risk — increase.” </p><p>The city’s Technology and Innovation Department maintains internal controls over IT and also uses outside experts for IT vulnerability risk assessments and intrusion testing. Thompson maintains in-house technology expertise on his team as well. One senior information systems auditor, he says, holds several IT certifications, including CISA, CITP, and ITIL v3 Foundation.</p><p>The City of Albuquerque, Thompson says, has implemented various smart technologies, including government document and data transparency, ride apps, enhanced wireless access, and online police services. Planned audit engagements assessing privacy concerns will target some of those enhancements. “Our annual audit plan this year includes an audit of all city systems and devices that contain personal identifiable information [PII],” Thompson notes. “Some of the city’s smart technologies will be included.”</p><p>Thompson says the audit will consider whether the city maintains a listing of all systems and devices containing PII and if it has controls in place to classify and safeguard PII correctly, including intake points, release and data sharing points, and storage. It will also examine whether individuals with access to the city’s computer environment are trained on and aware of their responsibility to safeguard PII and what to do in the event of a data breach. OIA will consider federal, state, local, and contractual requirements for PII and compare the city’s current practices with IT governance framework best practices recommended by ISACA’s COBIT framework, as well as NIST. </p><table class="ms-rteTable-default" width="100%" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr><td class="ms-rteTable-default" style="width:100%;"><p><strong>​Down the Pike</strong></p><p>For municipal auditors who are not engaged to audit their city's smart tech right now, there's a good chance they will be soon. Indeed, Kansas City, Mo.'s Chief Innovation Officer Bob Bennett declared last year at the Smart Cities Connect Conference and Expo that municipalities that don't get on the smart tech bandwagon soon will find themselves part of a "digital Rust Belt." </p><ul><li>66 percent of cities say they're investing in smart tech, according to a 2017 report from the National League of Cities called Cities and the Innovation Economy: Perspectives of Local Leaders; one-fourth of the rest are looking into it. </li><li>International Data Corp. reported in January that worldwide spending on smart cities initiatives would reach $95.8 billion in 2019, an increase of 17.7 percent over 2018; by 2021, the total could hit $135 billion. Singapore, New York, Tokyo, and London are expected to invest more than $1 billion each this year, IDC added; the applications receiving the most funding are fixed visual surveillance, advanced public transit, smart outdoor lighting, and intelligent traffic management.</li><li>IoT Analytics said late last year that there were 17 billion connected devices worldwide; the number of IoT devices — excluding smartphones, tablets, laptops, and fixed line phones — was pegged at 7 billion. "The number of IoT devices is expected to grow to 10 billion by 2020," the firm points out, "and 22 billion by 2025."</li><li>Mobility is the most common area for smart tech investment, according to the National League of Cities report. Other key applications include lighting solutions, security, and utilities management, according to the McKinsey Global Institute 2018 report, Smart Cities: Digital Solutions for a More Livable Future. </li></ul></td></tr></tbody></table><h2>Protecting the Vision</h2><p>Chattanooga, Tenn., City Auditor Stan Sewell also points to cybersecurity risk associated with his municipality’s emerging technologies. And while it’s not the No. 1 priority, the city’s tech-focused initiatives provide ample reason to ensure online security issues are addressed. “It’s definitely a risk, but it’s more of a ‘black swan’ concern,” he says.</p><p>Chattanooga’s Smart City Division, which manages street lights and traffic signals, acknowledges that “technical challenges may result from our vision in cybersecurity, hacking, and privacy issues.” “Vision” in Chattanooga includes autonomous vehicles and robust vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications. The city won a 2019 Smart Cities Connect Smart 50 Award, a global recognition of transformative smart city project work, for its Chattanooga Smart Community Collaborative research partnership.</p><p>Sewell’s primary concern is supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, composed of computers and both wired and wireless data communications modules that provide remote access to and control of a city’s infrastructure processes. “SCADA systems are vulnerable to cyberattacks,” he says, “which are occurring with an increased frequency.” A cyberattacker could gain remote control of the city’s water treatment, for example, “commanding the release of wastewater or sending false pressure sensor data, resulting in a catastrophic failure of water pumps and controls.” Sewell adds: “The various smart technologies increase the number of potential access points to enter the city’s systems to gain access to other areas.”</p><h2>Tried and True</h2><p>In some municipalities, the audit function’s treatment of smart tech doesn’t differ much from how it handles other city initiatives. Smart tech constitutes a largely routine subject, for example, for the City Auditor’s Office in Kansas City, Mo.</p><p>City Auditor Douglas Jones says he is aware of many of the city’s initiatives, one of which earned Kansas City a 2019 Smart 50 Award; plus, he knows smart tech is “timely and topical” and that it poses some reputation risk, as well as risks related to IT and operations. But from his perspective, newness can work against a program’s auditability. “It often makes little sense to audit a program with no track record,” he says. “And there’s always risk with a new program.”</p><p>Indeed, smart tech, Jones emphasizes, is “just one more thing that would be in our universe of potential audit topics. We cover everything from airports to the zoo, and we don’t put a specific emphasis on one thing or the other.” </p><p>Austin, Texas, another 2019 Smart 50 Award recipient, also places high priority on leveraging tech. In fact, Assistant City Auditor Andrew Keegan says Austin is trying to use its technology to help save lives. “Austin is committed to a Vision Zero plan, which calls for zero fatalities or serious injuries resulting from vehicle collisions by 2025,” he explains. “Part of that plan is focused on implementing new technologies.”</p><p>But Keegan’s team likely won’t be involved until after those plans and programs have been implemented. “Selecting a particular technology to audit depends on the risk posed by the new technology as compared to other risks facing the city,” he says. “This is our practice regardless of the topic.” Indeed, right now, his office is conducting an audit related to motorists’ well-being. “While part of that project includes reviewing the implementation of new technology,” he comments, “the audit is focused on the general issue of traffic safety.”</p><p>Amanda Noble, city auditor in the City of Atlanta’s City Auditor’s Office, notes that Atlanta has implemented smart mobility tech, but she, too, says the audit function didn’t have a role in assessing risk on the front end. “As the city was implementing the technology, we became aware of it and went to a demonstration,” she says. “But we looked at the data the city was connected to and its potential uses in risk assessments and audit work. We hadn’t thought about auditing the technology itself.”</p><p>Would it help? “I think it would,” Noble says. She notes that her team has assessed controls on financial systems installations, but “possibly because smart tech is not financial data, the audit function has not been asked to play a role.” Stakeholders viewing the profession as dealing primarily with financial information can be frustrating, she adds, in the face of internal audit training that emphasizes the importance of foresight in all areas of the enterprise. </p><p>“So much of our role is looking backward,” Noble says. “There’s not really a process for emerging risk, unless we do it as one-offs. There’s nothing systematic.” She adds that resource constraints limit the audit function’s ability to tackle emerging issues, so new risks may not be audited until nearly a year has passed. She’d like to do more.</p><p>“Decision-makers value our input,” Noble emphasizes. “We need a way to assess and report on emerging technology.”</p><h2>Expanded Services, New Skills</h2><p>Lediju sees a balance between tried and true audit services and helping organizations see around the corner. “We’ll need to remain focused on our existing foundation of auditing standards and principles to detect internal control weaknesses and fraud risks,” she says. “But the profession must be ready to take on more of an advisory role and help cities keep pace with and get ahead of emerging risks, maintaining its unique perspective on people, processes, and governance when striving to strengthen its risk management programs.” </p><p>Because of the specialized knowledge required for new and smart technologies, she adds, internal auditors who possess a mix of business and technology skills will be needed. In fact, more of them will be needed. “Smart tech requires more internal audit resources because the pool of tools is constantly expanding and being used for various operations across government services,” Lediju explains. As a result, she says, information and software oversight and accountability, including human and technology resources, become more necessary.</p><p>Internal auditors will need to adopt new tools and techniques, she adds, such as artificial intelligence and blockchain auditing and reconciliations, to increase continuous audit activities, rapidly pinpoint control gaps, and identify nonconformance and process improvement opportunities in real time. She says her office “currently relies on outside contracting and consulting services to keep abreast of the rapidly evolving trends and practices in technology, governance, security, and privacy relevant to the respective technologies.” </p><p>Lediju adds: “With the requirements of continuing professional education and the goal to help businesses and government adopt best or leading practices, internal audit can remain a necessary and beneficial agent of change.” Maybe, in fact, the profession could do more when it comes to smart tech. </p><table cellspacing="0" width="100%" class="ms-rteTable-4"><tbody><tr class="ms-rteTableEvenRow-4"><td class="ms-rteTableEvenCol-4" style="width:100%;"><strong>​IoT Risks</strong><p><br>The risk issues every public entity project faces are amplified when the connectivity required for smart technology is at play. </p><ul><li><em>Human error.</em> Hackers are one kind of human risk, simple mistakes are another. Often overlooked as a threat, the public entity employees who read the meters and monitor the system outputs — and decide when to override — are likely inexperienced with smart city technology, <em>Risk Management</em> magazine noted recently. Their ethics and judgment may also come into play in a smart tech crisis.</li><li><em>Technical difficulties.</em> The connectedness needed for smart technology to work may require integrating powerful, cutting-edge IT infrastructures with, as Travelers calls them in its 2017 Public Safety for the Smart City report, "legacy IT infrastructures that may not be fully up to the task of handling the extreme volumes and types of data." This includes, for example, vehicle-to-infrastructure that smart devices generate. Plus, sometimes software fails, or lightning strikes, or the power goes out. </li></ul><ul><li><em>Complicated connections.</em> Many smart tech projects, especially in transportation, involve public sector entities, academia, and private industry — and each often has its own data management infrastructure already in place. Many also involve multiple — in some cases, dozens of — local, county, and state jurisdictions. The City of San Diego General Plan, for example, includes a "mobility element" that will guide implementation of the city's part in the multi-stakeholder Mobility 2030 Regional Transportation Plan prepared by the San Diego Association of Governments, an organization of 18 local and county public entities. In addition, Southern California is a national Intelligent Transportation System Priority Corridor Program participant; the Southern California Association of Governments represents six counties and 191 cities.</li></ul><p> <br>Even the familiar risks posed by smart tech can cause greater concern to internal auditors because of their vast scale — especially if, as <em>Risk Management</em> puts it, "policies, procedures, and training do not adequately address the new capabilities." Additional education and new tools may be required to meet the challenge.</p></td></tr></tbody></table><p></p>Russell A. Jackson1
Fit for Digitalhttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/Fit-for-Digital.aspxFit for Digital<p>​Internal auditors better get fit. Digitally fit, that is. They will need to be in top shape to take action in digital transformation initiatives.</p><p>Digital fitness means embracing new technology to gain insights that can help digital transformation. It can make risk professionals "important partners and leaders in helping their organizations get better benefits from their digital initiatives," says Jim Woods, global risk assurance leader at PwC.</p><p>But many internal audit, risk, and compliance functions are falling short, according to PwC's latest <a href="https://www.pwc.com/us/en/services/risk-assurance/library/risk-study.html" target="_blank">Risk in Review Study</a>. The global study surveyed more than 2,000 board members, CEOs, and senior executives, as well as internal audit, compliance, and risk professionals. </p><p>Woods says internal audit and other risk functions are at a "critical juncture" in which automation, data analytics, and other technologies are transforming businesses. But new risks are transforming organizations, as well. "Digital transformation is also driving the potential for identifying risk and making smarter decisions," he adds. </p><p>Woods points to findings from PwC's most recent CEO survey in which about one in five CEOs said they receive risk exposure data that is comprehensive enough to make long-term decisions. That number hasn't increased in 10 years. </p><p>"Dynamics" is what PwC labels internal audit, compliance, and risk functions that are in the top quartile of surveyed organizations. These functions are developing digital capabilities faster, are confident in taking risks that are consistent with their strategies, manage transformation-related risks more effectively, and are getting better-than-expected value from digital investments than their peers. </p><p>The Risk in Review study outlines six components of digitally fit organizations. Internal audit functions might consider them a fitness regime.</p><h2>All-in on the Organization's Digital Plan</h2><p>Dynamics have aligned their function's digital strategy with that of their organization, enabling them to provide "strategic advice and assurance over the new and changing risks that digital transformation brings," the report notes. Three-fourths of dynamic functions seek specific outcomes from their digital investments, and 73% change performance metrics to support behaviors and manage against an "aspirational" digital operating model. Less than half of other organizations do those three things.</p><h2>Boost Digital Skills and Talent </h2><p>Auditors and risk professionals in dynamic functions have become data-driven and use digital tools to provide risk insights at the pace of the organization's transformation efforts, the report says. Executives say their organizations need critical thinking, technology, analytics, cybersecurity, project management, and change management skills. Eight in ten dynamic functions use performance metrics to assess and reward new digital ways of working, and seven in ten have created a talent management program to hire digital personnel or enhance the skills of existing people. </p><h2>Find the Right Fit for Emerging Technologies</h2><p>Overall, one-third of surveyed functions are using technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI), the Internet of Things (IoT), and robotic process automation. Dynamics are more likely than other functions to automate their activities to free people to work on more valuable analyses and to expand risk coverage. Thirty-six percent of dynamic functions use IoT sensors to respond to risks, and 39% use AI for population testing, controls, or risk modeling. Those are more than double the percentages of other functions. </p><h2>Enable the Organization to Act on Risk in Real Time</h2><p>To support transformation decisions, internal audit and other risk professionals must provide insights about a fast-changing set of risks that can impact the organization quickly. Nearly three-fourths of dynamic functions are redesigning current processes to deliver services and developing new services for stakeholders. Half are using intelligent automation or machine learning to prioritize risks. </p><h2>Engage Decision-makers of Key Digital Initiatives</h2><p>Audit and risk functions that provide the most value to transformation projects are in communication with decision-makers, participating in key meetings and consulting on projects and plans. About eight in 10 dynamic functions use dashboards or visualization tools to provide more strategic risk reports to the board. A similar number influence strategic decisions about digital initiatives.</p><h2>Provide a Consolidated View of Risks</h2><p>Dynamic audit and risk functions collaborate across the lines of defense on digital projects. With this component, the numbers are small, though. One in five dynamic functions have a common policy framework and a single set of risk metrics or key performance indicators. About one-fourth provide consolidated reports to the board. </p>Tim McCollum0
Internal Audit's Technology Challenge Is No Easy Roadhttps://iaonline.theiia.org/blogs/chambers/2019/Pages/Internal-Audits-Technology-Challenge-Is-No-Easy-Road.aspxInternal Audit's Technology Challenge Is No Easy Road<p><img src="/2019/PublishingImages/Cracked%20Road_445x300.jpg" class="ms-rtePosition-2" alt="" style="margin:5px;" />​I often refer to the end of the first quarter as "whitepaper season" for the internal audit profession. Typically starting in late February and into March, several key players in the profession publish reports that offer a glimpse into how we're doing. </p><p>Two recently released reports should raise serious concerns about internal audit's slow progress in adopting and adapting technology to execute its responsibilities: Protiviti's Internal Audit Capabilities and Needs survey, <a href="https://www.protiviti.com/US-en/insights/internal-audit-capabilities-and-needs-survey"><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em>Embracing the Next Generation of Internal Auditing</em></span></a>; and PwC's State of the Internal Audit Profession report, <a href="https://www.pwc.com/us/en/services/risk-assurance/library/internal-audit-transformation-study.html"><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em>Elevating Internal Audit's Role: The Digitally Fit Function</em></span></a><em>.</em><em> </em></p><p>Protiviti's report indicates that three out of four internal audit groups are undertaking some form of innovation or transformation, but most are only beginning that journey. What's more, a significant number of functions have yet to get started. Worse yet, "Less than one in three internal audit functions currently have a roadmap in place to guide their innovation and transformation journeys," according to the Protiviti report.</p><p>Internal audit's efforts to become "digitally fit," as described in PwC's report, are equally uninspiring. For the purposes of the report, PwC defines digital fitness in two important components. First, the function has in place the skills and competencies to provide strategic advice to stakeholders and to provide assurance with regard to risks from the organization's digital transformation. Second, the function is changing its own processes and services so as to become more data driven and digitally enabled.</p><p>While the PwC report finds 19 percent of internal audit functions are digitally fit, and another 27 percent are taking definitive steps toward digital fitness, 54 percent are described as beginners who are just starting relevant activities or planning them "in far more ad hoc ways."</p><p>This is particularly troubling when one considers how long the profession has been talking about updating and transforming its processes. My message to attendees of The IIA's General Audit Management conference in March addressed many of the same themes. In my presentation, Auditing at the Speed of Risk, I lamented the profession's low adoption rates of next generation technology, reliance on weak approaches to identifying emerging and atypical risks, and minimal changes in decades-old audit processes.</p><p>What is needed is transformational change, which was the theme of The IIA's 2018 Pulse of Internal Audit. <a href="https://www.theiia.org/centers/aec/Pages/2018-Pulse-of-Internal-Audit.aspx"><span style="text-decoration:underline;"><em>The Internal Audit Transformation Imperative</em></span></a> urged practitioners to embrace agility, innovate, raise the level of talent, and engage more closely with boards. The closing words of the report are as relevant and urgent today as ever:</p><p><em class="ms-rteStyle-BQ">Internal audit's progress over the past, and the successes accomplished, will not be enough to carry the profession forward. Current times require changes in mindset and actions from all internal auditors. Complacency will lead to irrelevance, but decisive moves by CAEs will propel internal audit forward through the transformation required.</em></p><p>I don't wish to be an alarmist, but stakeholders are demanding more from internal audit. Reports such as the ones from Protiviti and PwC suggest we are not ready to meet those demands.</p><p>I debated whether to use a crossroads analogy to hammer home this message. At first I thought it a bit cliché. Every crisis doesn't have to be a choice of one path or another. But in this case a slight modification to the crossroads discussion offers an important added level of clarity and urgency.</p><p>Most people envision a crossroads as intersecting roads that offer alternatives on which way to go. But that vision is typically two-dimensional, like the x- and y-axes on a quadrant graph. The reality is that there is a third dimension.</p><p>In this case, the z-axis offers a measure of how steep the journey toward digital fitness has become. Until we commit as a profession to innovate our approaches, update stale and slow processes, and embrace technology, the grade will get steeper with each passing day. The other direction on the z-axis provides an easier road. Of course, that road is all downhill, which is a direction we can't afford to go.</p><p>As always, I look forward to your comments.<br></p>Richard Chambers0
The Single Point of Failurehttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/The-Single-Point-of-Failure.aspxThe Single Point of Failure<p>When Canadian cryptocurrency exchange CEO Gerald Cotten died unexpectedly in December, he took key corporate passwords to his grave. Those passwords could unlock $137 million in customer funds that were trapped on Cotten’s encrypted notebook computer. Without the recovery key to access those funds, his company, QuadrigaCX, filed for bankruptcy, according to Nova Scotia’s Supreme Court records. </p><p>In March, court-appointed monitor Ernst & Young (EY) cracked Cotten’s code and found the funds had been transferred out of customers’ crypto wallets in April 2018. Moreover, EY says QuadrigaCX kept limited records and never reported its financials.</p><p>This incident takes the meaning of a single point of failure to a higher level. It also suggests some considerations for internal auditors now and in the future.</p><p>At QuadrigaCX, basic governance, risk management, and controls failed to prevent this unexpected and disastrous event or allow for a timely recovery. Clearly, access controls stopped the company from running the key cryptocurrency exchange process and transacting with its customers normally. </p><p>All organizations need to think about single-point-of-failure risks such as one person knowing all the key passwords to a critical process. This risk occurs when failure of one part of a system stops the entire system from working. This condition is undesirable in any system with a goal of high availability or reliability . This is what happened at QuadrigaCX, which raises important questions and lessons in three key areas.</p><h2>Technology Governance, Risks, and Controls</h2><p>Internal auditors should identify critical business technology governance, risks, processes, and systems to determine whether single points of failure exist. IIA Standard 1210.A3: Proficiency calls on auditors to know the business and technology they review, which they can accomplish by learning, documenting, and mapping key processes and systems. As part of that process, the auditor may analyze the process flow and identify whether certain devices or processes could become a single point of failure. For example, in some network configurations, a single router or device may serve as a key gateway. But if the one device fails, the gateway may become unavailable to users. </p><p>Likewise, a single software failure can have a calamitous impact on a business. In 2012, a failed software test at Knight Capital caused the company’s new trading system to start trading repeatedly, resulting in a $440 million loss within 45 minutes.</p><p>Information security tools or systems can become a single point of failure, too. For example, a retail company requested that all of its customers update their sign-on passwords, telling them it would give them promotional discounts and improve account security. However, the password security system became a single point of failure when suddenly too many customers logged on to update their passwords, which crashed the system. The system was not designed to handle the volume. </p><p>In addressing single points of failure, internal auditors should focus on the highest business process and technology risks. For example, Deloitte’s An Eye on the Future 2019: Hot Topics for IT Internal Audit in Financial Services report lists cybersecurity, technology transformation and change, technology resilience, and extended enterprise risks among its hot risk topics. Several of these topics apply to all organizations.</p><p>Knowing the top risks represents a start, but finding single points of failure in those areas can be challenging. Internal auditors cover program changes by testing governance and controls, but at best, auditors can only sample certain testing procedures and processes. </p><h2>Disaster Recovery Backup Testing</h2><p>Internal auditors should determine what recovery or backup plans are in place for the organization’s critical systems. Disaster recovery plans serve as a high-level control process to restore critical systems that were lost or disrupted. Reviewing the governance, risks, and controls over backup or disaster recovery tests allows the auditor to determine how rapidly a critical system can be recovered. The objective of recovery testing should include looking at any single points of failure such as testing for missing documents, devices, or key individuals. </p><p>Use of cloud technology and software as a service adds different factors that the auditor needs to review. For example, how frequent and how realistic are the testing plans? What mistakes or setbacks are uncovered, and more importantly, are there any single points of failure? If a critical system recovery was performed but needed a single person to provide the only passwords to transact or start the system, then the auditor or recovery team should consider this a single point of failure.</p><p>Some technology recovery plans are not completely tested or exercised because they are too complex, no resources are budgeted, or the governance is too weak. Sometimes limited recovery is considered successful. </p><p>Several years ago, during a large payroll processor’s data center disaster recovery test, an IT audit team observed that a critical system failed to restore several times. The culprit: One backup medium failed and could not be read. The disaster recovery team was able to get a new backup made but from the existing data center. This backup took more than two days to create. What would have happened if the existing data center had been unavailable or if it took weeks to restore? Would the payroll processor’s customers accept this critical service disruption? </p><h2>Key Personnel</h2><p>Auditors should look for key personnel or executives as a single point of failure in their audit universe or audit program. If a privileged account user, system administrator, or CEO is the person who knows the key password, and no other person or recovery process is in place, then the risk of a single point of failure increases.</p><p>To begin, internal auditors should identify who the key stakeholders — customers, vendors, or users — are for the critical systems. They should inquire and document whether any single individual performs a critical task or function and consider the single-point-of-failure risk. </p><p>Key personnel do not need to be a CEO to become a single point of failure. During a review of a large retailer’s critical key management system, an IT auditor discovered that one of the two individuals who had half of the primary encryption key had left the company. The company noticed this situation because it had not needed to generate a new key since the employee departed. If it had needed to generate a new key, a serious delay or security incident may have occurred.</p><p>Prepare for the Future</p><p>Preparing for the future, internal auditors need to continue assessing complex IT processes based on risk. The QuadrigaCX incident demonstrates that auditors need to assess possible technology single points of failure. When a single point of failure can disrupt an organization’s business or technology process, auditors need to carefully assess this threat. Ignoring it could be hazardous to the organization’s health. <br></p>Steve Mar1
The Consumer's Data Anxietyhttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/The-Consumer's-Data-Anxiety.aspxThe Consumer's Data Anxiety<p>​Consumers are fatigued from data breaches, ransomware attacks, and data misuse scandals, and are anxious about their privacy. Now a trio of surveys show U.S. consumers are losing trust in organizations to protect their personal information and support government regulation of the companies that collect it.</p><p>More than four out of five consumers say they are concerned about how companies use their data, according to an IBM Institute for Business Value survey. Three-fourths of respondents say they do not trust companies with their data, notes an Axios report on the survey.</p><p>Those concerns are echoed by <a href="https://go.ncipher.com/rs/104-QOX-775/images/ncipher-research-exposes-americans-personal-data-security-anxieties-pr.pdf?_ga=2.169208355.380265944.1553195460-2057322212.1553195460" target="_blank">a survey</a> of 1,000 U.S. adults by security hardware company nCipher Security. One in five respondents say they don't trust anyone to protect their data, with more than two-thirds concerned about identity theft. "Consumers are grasping for a semblance of control," says Peter Galvin, nCipher's chief strategy and marketing officer.</p><p>Respondents to both these surveys want companies to be held accountable for protecting their data. In the IBM survey, 87 percent of respondents say governments should regulate companies that manage personal data. Nearly 40 percent of nCipher survey respondents say organizations should fire their chief information security officer following a breach by an intruder. The same percentage say hacking should be a federal offense and that C-level executives should be fined or imprisoned for failing to protect data.</p><h2>The Problem With Facebook</h2><p>One case in point is Facebook, which has drawn the ire of legislators, regulators, and consumer and privacy advocates over the past year. Facebook's troubles began with reports that U.K. research firm Cambridge Analytica had obtained personal data on tens of millions of Facebook users and built profiles on them before the 2016 U.S. presidential election. Similar privacy lapses have emerged since then, despite Facebook executives' assurances to the U.S. Congress and European Commission that the company was working to ensure users' privacy.</p><p>Now with Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg recently touting a more "privacy-focused social network," <a href="https://www.consumerreports.org/social-media/what-do-you-think-of-facebook-now-survey/" target="_blank">a <em>Consumer Reports</em> survey</a> finds that one-fourth of Facebook users say they are very concerned about the amount of personal data Facebook collects about them. They're just not willing to do much about it, themselves.</p><p>For example, only 10 percent of Facebook account holders surveyed stopped using Facebook after learning about the Cambridge Analytica scandal, <em>Consumer Reports</em> found. By far, the biggest reason for staying with Facebook was it was the easiest way to stay connected with people, respondents say. </p><p>While they didn't quit, 70 percent report they have changed how they use Facebook. Forty-four percent surveyed say they have revised their privacy settings and nearly 40 percent have cut back on posting and viewing content, and turned off location tracking on Facebook's mobile app.</p><h2>Companies Leaking Data</h2><p>Consumers might act differently if they knew how frequently organizations compromise their data. In <a href="https://pages.egress.com/2019-Data-Privacy-research.html" target="_blank">a recent U.S. survey</a> conducted by Opinion Matters, 83 percent of security professionals say their organization has accidently exposed customer or business-sensitive data. </p><p>The study, commissioned by Boston-based security firm Egress, blames the proliferation of unstructured data contained in emails and document files combined with the number of internal and external channels that employees can communicate through. This combination "has made it easier than ever for employees to share data beyond traditional security platforms," says Mark Bower, chief revenue officer for Egress.</p><p>The survey notes five technologies that have contributed to accidental data breaches by employees: external email services such as Gmail and Yahoo Mail, corporate email, file-sharing services, collaboration platforms such as Slack and Dropbox, and messaging apps. </p><p>Most respondents say their organizations have implemented new security policies, and invested in security technologies and employee training. What they haven't done is encrypt data. Nearly 80 percent share sensitive data internally without encryption, and almost two-thirds share it externally without encrypting it. Without encryption, an employee mistake is more likely to result in data exposure, the survey notes.</p><p>With the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation in effect and other laws due to come online in the next year, organizations will need to plug these data leaks or pay a stiff price (see "GDPR's Global Reach" in the April issue of <em>Internal Auditor</em>). As these surveys indicate, consumers are growing tired of unfulfilled privacy promises and want companies and governments to act.</p>Tim McCollum0
Beneath the Datahttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/Beneath-the-Data.aspxBeneath the Data<p>​Big data can tell unexpected stories: The chief financial officer who had a conflict of interest with a supplier to whom he had awarded a multimillion-dollar contract. The two employees who provided their company-supplied fuel cards to family members to refuel their personal vehicles. The executive who had an affair with a union official during wage negotiations. </p><p>Internal auditors never could have discovered such wrongdoing through traditional audit sampling, walk-throughs, or reliance on the representations of management. They were only found by using business intelligence tools to mine data sources that are now routinely available.</p><h2>Business Intelligence for Auditors</h2><p>Audits typically entail inquiries of management, walk-throughs, and transaction sampling as a basis for statistically inferring the effectiveness of each internal control attribute under review. To be generalizable within a given confidence interval, transaction samples need to be both large and randomized to represent the entire population. In doing so, internal auditors usually presume that the population conforms to a normal bell curve. This brings with it the risk that if the sample is too small, the tests are performed with insufficient care, or the population is skewed differently from a normal bell curve, the auditor may form the wrong conclusions about the control’s true characteristics. If the population contains any erroneous or fraudulent transactions, it is unlikely they will turn up in a walk-through or random sample. </p><p>Today’s self-service business intelligence tools expand internal audit’s toolkit from mere questionnaires and sampling to mining entire data populations. These tools make it easier for auditors to mine data for errors such as anomalous transactions and fraudulent data correlations (see “Mining for Errors” below). In this way, auditors can pinpoint actual error, fraud, and cost savings that demand action.</p><p><img src="/2019/PublishingImages/Kelly-Mining%20for%20Errors.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /><br></p><p>Beyond financial transactions, auditors can use business intelligence tools to access newly available data sources such as telecommunications, email, internet usage, road tolls, time sheets, maintenance schedules, security incident logs, clocking on/off, and electronic point-of-sale transactions. Previously, many of these sources either were not auditable or were stored as manual records. Business intelligence tools open the door to a variety of audits.</p><p><strong>Inventory</strong> For many organizations, inventory is a complex and poorly understood process. Organizations record movements in cash, debtors, and creditors within their financial systems. Yet, inventory data easily can get out of step with the physical daily movement of thousands of nonhomogeneous goods. Inventory is vulnerable to receipting errors, barcode misreads, obsolescence, rot, and shrinkage. </p><p>Things often go wrong in inventory, and audits often have revealed downside errors of 10 percent of inventory value. Therefore, internal audit could focus on ensuring quantity and description data matches physical reality through accurate goods receipting into the accounting system, precise sales capture, and reliable stock-taking. Once inventory data reflects the physical goods on hand, data mining can assist with identifying: </p><p></p><ul><li>Slow-moving and excessive inventory build-up. </li><li>Book-to-physical adjustments pointing to shrinkage or theft by location. </li><li>Refundable stock that can be returned to suppliers. </li><li>Stock-outs where the organization lost sales because of insufficient demand analysis. </li><li>Negative quantities revealing goods receipting or similar process errors. </li></ul><p><br></p><p>This kind of audit analysis demonstrates the informational value of having accurate inventory data. Such information can lead the organization to prioritize which inventory processes most need fixing.</p><p><strong>Supply Chain</strong> Organizations need to know supplier agreements do not conceal undeclared conflicts of interest and suppliers are paid no more than their contractual entitlements. Even small organizations process thousands of supplier payments daily, so errors are likely. Data mining can include: </p><p></p><ul><li>Matching supplier master data such as bank account numbers, addresses, and telephone numbers to employee and next-of-kin master data for unexpected relationships. </li><li>Isolation of purchase orders or payments just below authorization thresholds. </li><li>Erroneous duplicate invoice payments because of optical character recognition or human error when entering invoice references such as mis-entry of “I” instead of “1,” or “S” instead of “5,” or “/” instead of “\.” </li><li>Historic credit notes that have never been offset against subsequent payments and remain recoverable from suppliers. </li></ul><p><br></p><p>Audits using these tests have experientially revealed an average of 0.1 percent in errors, which enabled organizations to recover cash refunds from suppliers. Auditing over several prior years can result in material financial recoveries. <br></p><p><strong>Payroll</strong> For most organizations, payroll is the largest single cost. The board and audit committee need to know overpaying or underpaying employees is minimized. Payroll data mining can include comparing hours paid to hours actually worked by matching sick leave and holiday to other time- and location-stamped data such as building entry/exit data, cell phone metadata, and email data. In doing this, internal auditors can present management with compelling evidence that supports corrective action. Moreover, previous audits have uncovered savings of about 1 percent of total payroll cost from: </p><p></p><ul><li>Claiming fictional hours on time sheets. </li><li>Falsely claiming to be working at home or on paid sick leave. </li><li>Missing scheduled training. </li><li>Finding repetitive patterns of fictitious sick leave taken on Mondays, Fridays, and the day before or after public holidays. </li></ul><p><br><strong>Company Motor Vehicles</strong> Auditors can mine data gathered from vehicles, including road tolls, refueling, traffic penalties, and insurance claims. This jigsaw puzzle of data can show auditors how vehicles are being used for business purposes, possible abuse of vehicles, and drivers with poor driving histories that result in unnecessary cost. This data can be obtained from external motor fleet providers and insurers. Such audits can recover around 5 percent of fleet costs.</p><p><strong>Metadata</strong> While the content of company-issued cell phone calls and text messages is confidential, the accompanying nonconfidential metadata includes called numbers, durations, date and time stamps, and base station geographical locations. Auditors can discern employee activity, interconnections, and external relationships during work hours or while on paid sick leave by matching this metadata to other sources such as the organization’s telephone list and employee and supplier master files. Internet usage metadata provides similar insights. These data sources can help when investigating white collar conflicts of interest and fraud. </p><p>These are just a few areas where business intelligence opens new portholes. Partnering with the chief information officer can help internal audit access the organization’s databases. Once access is granted, auditors can use business intelligence tools with minimal assistance. </p><h2>Getting Started</h2><p>With business intelligence, auditors are no longer constrained by Microsoft Excel’s 1,048,576 row limit. Excel 2016 includes built-in business intelligence tools, Power Query and Power Pivot. Power Query is an extract, transform, and load (ETL) tool that reads source data and makes it available for Power Pivot for data modeling. This source data typically comes from comma- or tab-separated outputs from other systems. Auditors can access Power Query under Excel 2016’s Data ribbon, where it is also known as Get Data and, once opened, Query Editor.</p><p>Power Query and Power Pivot have formula languages that allow users to create new data columns specific to their own unique needs. Power Query uses M formula language and Power Pivot uses Data Access Expressions (DAX). Both languages differ from Excel formulas. Whereas Excel formulas are not case sensitive and usually do not distinguish among string, date, and numeric data types, M and DAX are sensitive to both text case and data type. This distinction is important when manipulating data and performing calculations. </p><p>Once internal auditors have loaded and edited the raw data down to only the needed columns in Power Query, they can add each table to the Power Pivot data model under the “Add to data model” option. Auditors can then access Power Pivot from Excel under “Manage data model.” From there, they can use the “Diagram view” to link tables such as transaction files keyed to their corresponding master files. The data model can handle multiple external data sources as well as normal Excel tables. This capability allows auditors to create multidimensional relational databases rather than two-dimensional flat files. </p><p>Power Pivot enables auditors to annotate the relational databases retrieved in Power Query with unique columns and measures specific to audit needs, which can be analyzed using Excel’s pivot tables. “Applying Business Intelligence Using Benford’s Law” at the bottom of the page illustrates how Power Query, M, Power Pivot, and Excel can work together to search for irregularities. </p><h2>Data Cleansing</h2><p>Data files usually need to be cleansed before analysis. That is because over time, original source data is input by a variety of users whose training and attention to accuracy may be inconsistent. Some fields may hold invalid data as a result of being migrated from different systems or different versions of the same system. Moreover, stack overflow and other error types may lurk in historic data, the text files may have misaligned some fields, and records may be broken across two or more rows. </p><p>Comma-separated text files can present extra cleansing problems if users have input commas into individual fields. For example, “Kelly & Yang, Inc” would translate into two separate fields because of the comma, whereas “Kelly & Yang Inc” would translate into one field. </p><p>ETL tools will attempt to read all transactions from the raw data files. But if the tool encounters errors, it may exclude them from the upload, resulting in loss of data that dilutes the objective of testing the entire population. If time allows, the auditor may cleanse the text files field-by-field in a spreadsheet or word processor by rejoining broken records, recalibrating misaligned fields, trimming stray characters or spaces, replacing known error values with blanks or zeros, and converting dates stored as text to real dates. </p><p>Further cleansing may be required if source files are fragmented across different years or subsidiaries and need to be joined into a single table, or if source files are tabulated differently from how internal audit wants to use them. In the first case, Power Query can append files into a single data source provided the field headings are identical. In the second case, auditors can untabulate inappropriately tabulated source files back into a single column of data using Power Query’s Unpivot command.</p><p>Internal auditors should keep a record of data cleansing actions in case future rework is required. Any updates to source data made in Power Query will need to be refreshed in the Power Pivot data model as well as in dependent pivot tables. </p><h2>Efficient Queries</h2><p>Business intelligence tools are faster than previous versions of Excel, but internal auditors still need to be mindful of formula efficiency. If the auditor tries to add a new calculated field to a data model that requires a row-by-row lookup of each element in a two-million-row database, that could easily result in two million x two million = four trillion separate lookups. </p><p>Even with software, four trillion lookups could take several hours. Auditors can increase query efficiency by indexing, compartmentalizing a large query with efficient calculated fields, and filtering out unwanted columns or transactions that are blank or below a given materiality threshold. </p><h2>Securing Data</h2><p>To avoid internal audit being the source of a leak, or to limit the damage if the unthinkable occurs, auditors should take care with data. Auditors can exclude fields that identify living individuals, home addresses, or bank account numbers from downloads or replace them with codes such as an employee number instead of a name. They should be cautious when transmitting data to ensure USB drives are secure and electronic data is not emailed to unintended recipients. Auditors should check recipient email addresses before hitting “send.” Password protection and encryption should be used when practical. As auditors only need to work on copy data — rather than live data — they usually can destroy their version and wipe USB drives after the audit is completed. </p><h2>Original Insights</h2><p>Business intelligence tools unlock new ways to audit. With only a little new learning, business intelligence tools can expand internal audit’s adventures into new pools of financial and operational data that may reveal risk and control insights. Moreover, because even the most innocuous transactions leave data trails, imaginative analysis can uncover errors, fraud, and cost savings that transform audit reports into compelling reading for executives and the board.</p><p><img src="/2019/PublishingImages/Kelly-Applying-BI-Using-Benfords-Law_web.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;" /><br></p>Christopher Kelly1
GAM 2019: Disruption’s Internal Audit Impacthttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/GAM-2019-Disruption’s-Internal-Audit-Impact.aspxGAM 2019: Disruption’s Internal Audit Impact<p style="text-align:left;">​New technologies can expand internal audit's capabilities, said panelists at this morning's opening general session of The IIA's General Audit Management Conference in Dallas. The session moderated by Harold Silverman, IIA managing director, CAE Solutions, featured panelists Brian Foster, general manager, Internal Audit at Microsoft Corp.; Stephen Mills, managing director at Promontory Financial Group; and Christa Steele, owner of <span>ChristaSteele</span><span>.</span><span>com</span>. </p><p style="text-align:left;">Foster listed the technologies and tools that internal audit should be using today to prepare for tomorrow, including:</p><ul><li>Collaboration tools.</li><li>Data tools and metrics.</li><li>Deep data analytics.</li><li>Automation.</li><li>Predictive tools.</li><li>Natural language processing.</li><li>A defined artificial intelligence (AI) audit framework.</li></ul><p style="text-align:left;"><br></p><p style="text-align:left;">He said internal audit should be building capabilities such as: </p><ul><li>Business acumen.</li><li>Trusted advisor. </li><li>Collaboration.</li><li>Growth mindset.</li><li>Technical insights — using technology to drive predictive analysis.</li><li>Data-driven storytelling.</li><li>Point of view — customer obsessed.</li></ul><p style="text-align:left;"><br></p><p style="text-align:left;">"If we can move away from tasks and more toward insights, we're going to be better off," Foster said. If internal audit evolves, he noted, it will not only remain relevant, it will also become a strategic partner. </p><p style="text-align:left;">In his presentation, Mills told the audience, "Potential capabilities are rapidly evolving even as we speak in terms of their usage and applications." He referenced robotic process automation, cognitive automation, and AI. </p><p style="text-align:left;">"It's very much about an audit management challenge," Mills said. It's a call to action for senior leaders about how they are going to use these tools in their organizations. There are not enough internal auditors with the skills to get the best value out of these tools, he added. CAEs needs to hire the right people. </p><p style="text-align:left;">Mills went on to say that because The IIA's Certified Internal Auditor certification is the skill-based qualification of the internal audit profession, "As we move forward, it's going to increasingly be the qualification that identifies you as an expert in this [disruptive] field."</p><p style="text-align:left;">Steele told the audience it's time to move beyond just being educated on these new technologies to implementation. She added that the line between audit and risk functions is blurring. Internal audit needs to step up. "If you're not forcing a discussion in the boardroom on what's outside the norm, you're failing the organization," she said. </p><p style="text-align:left;">Steele encouraged the audience to be willing to be vulnerable and candid when they're talking about what they're auditing versus what they should be auditing. And, "Go beyond typical reporting," she urged. "Interpret, predict, prevent."</p><p style="text-align:left;">Steele concluded by telling the audience, "Don't just take the direction; set the direction."</p>Anne Millage0
GAM 2019: Innovations and Impacthttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/GAM-2019-Innovations-and-Impact.aspxGAM 2019: Innovations and Impact<p>​Shivvy Jervis, an award-winning innovation futurist, advisor, and broadcaster, opened GAM 2019 with her session, Future Innovations With Big Impact: What's Leading the Charge?</p><p>Jervis told the audience futurism is "not about wild guess work or lofty claims." Rather, it is rooted in rigorous research, and humanity must be a part of the equation. "Technology is dead in the water if it doesn't augment human experiences," she noted.<br></p><p>Jervis said there have been three striking shifts in innovation: </p><ul><li>New advances engineering our needs in a built stage vs. retrofit.<br></li><li>Radical customization and hyper personalization.<br></li><li>Software focused on preempting consumer/client needs.</li></ul><div><br></div><p>Jervis discussed a series of areas highlighting the current and future state of innovations.<br></p><p><strong>Emotive AI</strong>: matches computational ability of advanced algorithms with interfaces that read and respond to human emotion. Meet the digital human — already being used in organizations. The user activates the avatar from a device. It perceives and acknowledges the user's mood. The user asks for the information he or she needs. The digital human mines its database and finds the information rapidly. Jervis says it is an always-on customer service tool. <br></p><p><strong>Data Science</strong>: More powerful than traditional analytics, predictive analytic tools sort through data to predict trends. Users who aren't finding the value in these tools either aren't asking the right questions or need more advanced tools, Jervis said.<br></p><p><strong>Mixed Reality:</strong> experiences or visualizations. Physical and digital objects coexist and interact in real time. The next generation of mixed reality will infuse actual touch in a virtual world. Mixed reality is already being used in defense planning and soldier training, improving surgical outcomes, engineering, and manufacturing. <br></p><p><strong>Immersive Reality:</strong> bringing collateral to life. Physical surfaces around consumers will be hives of content, she explained.<br></p><p><strong>Digital Identity:</strong> According to Jervis, 3.3 billion records were stolen last year, with 42 percent of security breaches stemming from within the organization. Fingerprints and facial ID can already be hacked, she explained, adding that organizations are shifting from first-generation identity security to second-generation biometrics. So what are these new biometrics?</p><ul><li>Vein or vascular ID — subdermal vein patterns under skin (vs. fingerprinting).<br></li><li>Heartbeat ID or cardiac biometrics — everyone has a unique heartbeat pattern.</li></ul><div><br></div><p>"In the future, might we need just one portable sensor that can always prove our identity?" Jervis asked the audience. She said we will likely see that type of sensor first in the B2B sector, and then it will roll out to consumers.  <br></p><p>So how should organizations approach innovation? Jervis says: </p><ul><li>Bring in the mavericks.<br></li><li>Celebrate failure.<br></li><li>Make it inclusive (bet on people, not just strategies and blueprint innovation across organization).<br></li><li>Don't forget about brand perception.<br></li><li>Be nimble and agile. <br><br></li></ul><p>Jervis ended her session with some examples of jobs of the future: </p><ul><li>Head of organizational disruption.<br></li><li>Tech ethicist.<br></li><li>Head of immersive workplace.<br></li><li>Space physician.<br></li><li>Chief trust officer.<br></li><li>Robot–human interaction counsellor.</li></ul><div><br></div><p>"We simply want a future that works," she concluded. <br></p>Anne Millage0
Data Is a Matter of Trusthttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/Data-Is-a-Matter-of-Trust.aspxData Is a Matter of Trust<p>​Despite the hype, most organizations aren't relying on analytics to guide their decisions. Indeed, just 15 percent of more than 2,400 business leaders and managers surveyed say their organization uses advanced analytics, research by <em>MIT Sloan Management Review</em> Connections finds.</p><p>For many, the problem is trust — trust in the data and trust in its utility as a decision-making tool, according to the <a href="https://sloanreview.mit.edu/sponsors-content/data-analytics-and-ai-how-trust-delivers-value/" target="_blank">Data, Analytics, & AI report</a>, sponsored by software firm SAS. Building that trust may require organizations to overcome two persistent gaps that are holding back analytics.</p><p>The first is a utility gap. Although three-fourths of respondents have greater access to "useful" data, only 43 percent say they frequently can leverage the data they need to make decisions. </p><p>That feeling that leaders don't have the "right data" on which to base decisions reveals a second gap: trust. Only 11 percent of respondents say they always trust the relevance of analytics data, while 12 percent always trust its timeliness. Less than 10 percent say they always trust its completeness and accuracy.</p><p>There is some hopeful news. More than two-fifths of respondents say they often trust the relevance, timeliness, and accuracy of analytics data. The downside is only about one-fourth say they often trust the data's completeness.</p><h2>Ensuring Quality</h2><p>Respondents say data quality efforts need improvement. Over two-fifths of respondents describe their data quality approach as informal. That means they reactively correct the data for accuracy, consistency, timeliness, and completeness. </p><p>"The worst place to fix the data is when it's already been collected," says Jeanne Ross, principal research scientist at the MIT Center for Information Systems Research in Cambridge, Mass., in the report. </p><p>One-fifth of respondents say their organization has a formal approach to data quality as part of data governance. This includes routine monitoring, managing, and improving data quality. </p><p>To improve data quality, Ross recommends organizations focus on the business process that gathers the data. That's easier said than done, she admits, but the effort is worth it. With analytics, "your unique opportunity is your own data," she explains.</p><p>It's going to take more money to get to that point, the study notes. Yet only 15 percent of respondents say their organization significantly increased funding of data quality efforts in the past year.</p><h2>Data at Risk</h2><p>Executives trusting the data is one thing, but customers have trust issues with the organizations collecting that data from them. "If customers and partners become reluctant to share data," the study points out, "the data-driven enterprise is at risk."</p><p>Most survey respondents have implemented a data breach response plan or plan to do so soon. Nearly half track where the organization stores data, and 43 percent have an updated list of sensitive data. Also, 44 percent train all employees on IT security risks and practices, while one-fifth are rolling out such training.</p><p>Many respondents' organizations also are adopting better cybersecurity practices. Nearly two-fifths use a recognized cybersecurity framework and another 15 percent are currently implementing one. Nearly half either have a chief information security officer or are creating that position. And some organizations are using analytics to protect data. </p><p>Privacy efforts aren't keeping up, though. About two-fifths of organizations currently notify customers about how their information is collected and shared, and have controls over how employees use that data. Conversely, 14 percent of respondents say their organization is not concerned about privacy.</p><h2>Taking the Lead</h2><p>Executive leadership is a common thread for organizations adopting data analytics. Most respondents say executives seek out data and use analytics in decision-making. However, leaders are less likely to prioritize analytics investments.</p><p>"One area where leadership might do more is analytics skills in the workforce," the study states. About two-fifths of respondents say lack of analytics skills inhibits innovation. </p><p>That may be changing, though, as about one-third are training or beginning to train staff in analytics skills. Moreover, the study points out that collaborations between analytics experts and business units can begin to transform the organization's culture to incorporate analytics. </p>Tim McCollum0
Trusted for Technologyhttps://iaonline.theiia.org/2019/Pages/Trusted-for-Technology.aspxTrusted for Technology<p>Technology is a key enabler of business value. Internal auditors must be able to verify that these processes provide the intended return on investment and that technology risk decisions and resources are optimized. Without the necessary skills, auditors may not deliver the value that the business expects of them. </p><p>Most technology auditors at Nordstrom are integrated auditors — technologists with business degrees and years of consulting firm experience. They work as peers to three other unofficial designations of auditors: operations, business intelligence, and compliance. </p><p>Nordstrom uses two metrics to determine whether its technology auditors are trusted advisors: whether clients return to request internal audit’s services and whether the audit recommendations result in business value. To provide valuable counsel, technology auditors need to understand the emerging technologies with which their business partners are working as well as developments such as DevOps, the Internet of Things, and serverless architecture. In learning to provide such advice, technology auditors focused on five areas. </p><h2>Cybersecurity and Privacy</h2><p>Most industries consider cybersecurity and privacy to be inherently high risks. As a company that relies on technology, Nordstrom has hired professionals with cybersecurity certifications to consult and audit how to optimize its risk posture.</p><p>In turn, technology auditors have interpreted and applied controls from security frameworks to Nordstrom’s new, cloud-based environment. Two frameworks auditors use are the International Organization for Standardization’s ISO 27002 — Information Technology–Security Techniques–Code of Practice for Information Security Controls and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology Cybersecurity Framework.</p><p>Auditors translate the security requirements of these frameworks into the language the audit clients use. For example, application teams have adopted a DevOps structure whereby any member of the team can make changes to production code. Auditors explained to the team the potential for unauthorized code change and the requirements contained in the security standards. That helped team members realize they should implement logging and file-integrity monitoring linked to change tickets as a compensating control to ensure that unauthorized changes would be detected immediately. As teams learn about security risk and controls, they make more risk-optimized decisions. </p><h2>Technology Governance</h2><p>Nordstrom’s internal auditors rely on ISACA’s COBIT 5 framework to evaluate technology governance maturity on a repeatable basis. Auditors merged COBIT 5 and ISO standards to create a framework specific to Nordstrom as a basis for audits. This framework enables auditors and audit clients to see where their activities fit into the big picture. </p><p>Having a framework has enabled the department to partner operational auditors with technology auditors to perform integrated audits on nontechnical aspects of technology governance. In one review, auditors provided assurance that technology projects were delivering the value promised in the business case. The auditors on the integrated audit expanded their knowledge by covering tech strategy, enterprise architecture, and performance measurement. </p><h2>Data Science </h2><p>Nordstrom’s auditors have written more compelling audit reports by testing 100 percent of populations using data science techniques. To write such reports, all auditors are expected to have basic knowledge of Microsoft Excel, statistics, and data validation. Internal audit leverages data extraction tools to obtain data for use in creating impactful issue statements in reports. </p><p>Data science tools are especially useful when joining two or more data sets (see <a href="/2019/Pages/Beneath-the-Data.aspx">“Beneath the Data”</a>). In one project, internal audit extracted incident ticket information and linked it with information about problem tickets, root-cause analysis, and application IDs from multiple systems of record. To extract knowledge from these unique data sets, auditors used data visualization tools to tell the story of how well the company’s change-management controls were performing and if it was learning from the incidents. The client capitalized on the analysis to track how much progress was made since the report was delivered.</p><h2>Robotic Process Automation </h2><p>A recent development for Nordstrom’s internal auditors is the use of robotic process automation (RPA). Projects are advisory in nature and aligned with internal audit’s goal of identifying ways to reduce expense or work effort. Partnering with the company’s restaurant and tax divisions, auditors created robots to automate manual processes relevant to food and beverage licensing and entry of invoices. Through this automation, auditors reduced the clients’ payroll expenses. </p><p>Another example is the company’s user-access review and validation process. Auditors incorporated control owners’ control documentation into internal audit’s testing procedures and used RPA to test attributes. One test validated that users had their access revoked timely. RPA has enabled auditors to accomplish more testing within the same time frame.</p><h2>Communication</h2><p>Nordstrom’s technology auditors have focused on improving their verbal and written communication skills. To communicate effectively with the technology organization, the department’s IT audit director spent six months working directly for technology leaders before starting his role in internal audit. During this time, he learned those executives’ leadership and communication styles, which internal auditors now incorporate into their reports to increase their impact. </p><p>Auditors also have become persuasive communicators, effective negotiators, and great listeners. They have increased stakeholder buy-in by using data to buttress audit findings and action plans. Business partners now expect audit findings to be supported by data, even when the topic is difficult to quantify.</p><p>However, visualizing data is not required for all audit reports. Sometimes, visualizations cause the client to jump to assumptions without reading all the details. Some clients prefer to read the text instead. While audit reports should always focus on the most important risks and opportunities, auditors tailor the department’s report style to meet stakeholders’ desired format.</p><h2>Earning Trust</h2><p>To benefit the organization, internal audit needs to constantly develop staff members into trusted advisors and retain them. So far, Nordstrom’s efforts have: </p><ul><li>Increased risk-focused conversations led by leadership, resulting in more effective controls.<br></li><li>Led to a cultural shift to spend time building technology risk mitigation strategies. <br></li></ul><p><br>In the process, technology auditors have received high client satisfaction ratings as well as more requests from management to perform work. Moreover, management is more proactive in driving change about issues that auditors have identified, even before they receive audit reports. Once clients realize that an audit report can propel them faster toward achieving their objectives, they tend to become repeat clients and tell their peers throughout the organization.  <br></p>Paul Slye1

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